Typical Garment Worn by Mestizas
Influenced by the Spanish, the typical dress of Mestizas is the “terno”. It consists of three pieces: the “jubón”, which is a square lapel that is attached to the neckline of the “hipil” (variant of the Mexican word “huipil”), which is a knee-length shift-type dress. The third piece is the “fustán”, a half slip worn underneath the hipil. Each garment has embroidery, cross stitched or machine-made, at the bottom edge, and is complemented by wide white lace which hangs from the hipil and the fustán.
Until 100 years ago, the “rebozo” (shawl) was not part of the terno attire. Yucatecan women wear the red and black Santa María rebozo, brought from Puebla in the Porfirio Díaz era.
The Mestizas wear a closed shoe with a straight heel and buckle, strictly white, made of leather, patent leather, or covered with fabric. Most wear stockings.
The Mestizas comb their hair straight back off the face without parting it, twisting it into a bun called a “tuch” which is held in place with an ornamental comb and a long bow. On one side they attach a small bunch of fresh flowers.
They wear traditional jewelry: a rosary of gold filigree, another one of coral and gold, a double “salomónica” chain (usually inherited from their mothers), filigree and coral earrings, and a gold chain bracelet. They fill their fingers, except the thumb, with rings. They wear a “jipi” hat which they put on back to front, saving a space in its interior for a mirror and lipstick for touchups between dances, and from this there are two long, wide ribbons which hang to the waist.
The terno is used only at the “vaquería” fiestas and at Mestiza weddings, where only the bride should wear one (with white embroidery and a floor-length tulle veil). The double salomónica chain serves as the wedding knot.
The hipil and the fustán are worn at all the other festivities: birthdays, processions, etc., with the “capellada” shoe, which is a sandal similar to the “alpargatas” that the men wear, along with the inseparable Santa María rebozo.
The garment for day-to-day wear is the hipil with a decorative strip which looks like embroidery; along with the slip but without the lace.
The authentic garments worn by Mestizas has been disappearing with the passage of time. Today, many of them dress in the latest fashion and follow today’s trends.
In the above photo you can see a close-up of the authentic garments worn by the Mestizas, with special focus on the embroidery and the jewelry.
Source: “Bailes y Danzas Tradicionales de Yucatán” by Luis Pérez Sabido.
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