Until 100 years ago, the “rebozo” (shawl) was not part of the terno attire. The Yucatecan woman uses the red and black Santa María rebozo, brought from Puebla in the Porfirio Díaz era.
The Mestiza wears the same shoes as the upper class, a closed shoe with a straight heel and buckle, strictly white, made of leather, patent leather, or covered with fabric. Most wear stockings.
The Mestizas comb their hair straight back off the face without parting it, twisting it into a bun called a “tuch” which is held in place with an ornamental comb and a long bow. On one side they attach a small bunch of natural flowers.
They wear traditional jewelry: a rosary of gold filigree, another one of coral and gold, a double “salomónica” chain (inherited from her mother), filigree and coral earrings, and a gold chain bracelet. They fill their fingers, except the thumb, with rings. They wear a “jipi” hat which they put on back to front, saving a space in its interior for a mirror and lipstick for touchups between dances, and from this they hang two long, wide ribbons which hang to the waist.
The terno is used only at the “vaquería” fiestas and at Mestiza weddings, where only the bride should wear one (with white embroidery and a floor-length tulle veil). The double salomónica chain serves as the wedding knot.
The hipil and the fustán are worn at all the other festivities: birthdays, processions, etc., with the “capellada” shoe, which is a sandal similar to the “alpargatas” that the men wear, along with the Santa María rebozo.
The garment for day-to-day wear is the hipil with a decorative strip which looks like embroidery but in most cases is not; along with the slip but without the lace.
The authentic garments worn by Mestizas have been disappearing with the passage of time. Today, many of them dress in the latest fashion and follow today’s trends. The tuch is also a thing of the past, replaced by ringlets; and the beautiful coral and gold filigree rosaries and crosses are absent as well, replaced by false pearls and imitation jewelry. The original garments are mainly seen today during Carnaval events and vaquerías, where traditional dress is a “must”.
Source: “Bailes y Danzas Tradicionales de Yucatán” by Luis Pérez Sabido.
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